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Representation in Ireland
News article26 January 2023Representation in Ireland2 min read

Commission decides to refer IRELAND to the Court of Justice for failing to correctly transpose Water Framework Directive protecting waters from pollution

The Commission decided today to refer Ireland to the Court of Justice of the European Union for failing to correctly transpose the Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC) into national law.

Sunset over the River Liffey in Dublin

The Directive establishes a framework for protecting inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater by preventing their further deterioration, preventing pollution as well as protecting and enhancing water dependent ecosystems and water resources. It requires that all inland and coastal waters reach at least good status by 2027 at the latest. To achieve this, Member States are to establish river basin management plans and programmes with measures. This is an important aspect of the European Green Deal's zero pollution ambition, aiming for water pollution to be reduced to levels no longer considered harmful to human health and natural ecosystems.

EU Member States were required to transpose the Water Framework Directive into national law by 22 December 2003. Ireland initially adopted legislation, but the Commission found it to be insufficient.

The Commission sent a letter of formal notice to Ireland in October 2007, followed by a reasoned opinion in November 2011. The Commission reassessed the case after Ireland adopted new amending legislation and also took into account the Court of Justice's caselaw interpreting some of the provisions of the Directive. The Commission sent an additional letter of formal notice to Ireland in January 2019, followed by an additional reasoned opinion in October 2020.

Despite some progress and the adoption of new legislation in June 2022, the Irish authorities have not yet fully addressed the grievances, over 20 years after the entry into force of this Directive. Ireland's transposing law still needs to provide for appropriate controls in the following areas: water abstraction, impoundment and activities causing hydro-morphological changes such as dams, weirs and other interferences in natural water flow.

The Commission considers that efforts by the Irish authorities have to date been unsatisfactory and insufficient and is therefore referring Ireland to the Court of Justice of the European Union.


The Water Framework Directive, which came into force in 2000, provides a framework for integrated water management in river basin districts across the European Union. It obliges Member States to protect and restore all bodies of ground water and surface water (rivers, lakes, transitional and coastal water) to achieve "good status" by 2027 at the latest.

Ireland presented a new Water Environment Bill on 28 September 2022 which is now with the Irish Parliament for debate and adoption. The memo accompanying the Bill states that the aim of this legislation is to answer the Commission's infringement with regard to creating new powers to control water abstraction and impoundment activities. The Bill provides for a new regulatory framework, the details of which will then need to be filled in with implementing regulations. It is not clear how long it will take for full compliance to be achieved.

For More Information

Water Framework Directive webpage

Infringement decisions database

EU infringement procedure

Link to January 2023 infringements package


Publication date
26 January 2023
Representation in Ireland